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Collection of Evidence

Collection of Evidence
Collection of Evidence


Arbitration is a popular alternative dispute resolution mechanism that provides parties with a private, efficient, and flexible means of resolving disputes outside the traditional courtroom setting. One of the critical aspects of arbitration is the collection and presentation of evidence, which significantly influences the outcome of the dispute. The approach to evidence in arbitration differs from that in litigation, reflecting arbitration's more flexible and party-driven nature. 


Arbitration in India is primarily governed by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, which aligns with the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. The Act provides a broad framework within which parties can structure their arbitration process, including the collection of evidence.

Flexibility and Party Autonomy

One of the hallmarks of arbitration is the principle of party autonomy, which allows parties to agree on the rules and procedures governing the arbitration, including the collection of evidence. Section 19 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, states that the arbitral tribunal is not bound by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. Instead, the parties are free to agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral tribunal in conducting its proceedings.

Role of the Arbitral Tribunal

In the absence of an agreement between the parties, the arbitral tribunal has the discretion to determine the procedure for collecting evidence. Section 19(3) of the Act empowers the tribunal to conduct the proceedings in the manner it considers appropriate, which includes deciding on the admissibility, relevance, materiality, and weight of any evidence.


Procedures for Collection of Evidence

Document Production

Document production is a fundamental aspect of the evidence-gathering process in arbitration. Parties may request the disclosure of documents relevant to the dispute. The scope and extent of document production are typically governed by the arbitration agreement or the procedural orders issued by the arbitral tribunal.

Redfern Schedule: A widely used tool for managing document production is the Redfern Schedule, which provides a structured format for parties to list the documents requested, the relevance and materiality of each document, the objections (if any) to the production, and the tribunal's decision.

Witness Testimony

Witness testimony plays a crucial role in arbitration, providing firsthand accounts and clarifications on matters of fact. The process for witness testimony in arbitration can be more flexible than in litigation, with parties often allowed to submit written witness statements followed by oral examination during the hearings.

Cross-Examination: Cross-examination of witnesses is a common practice in arbitration, allowing the opposing party to challenge the testimony and credibility of the witness. The arbitral tribunal ensures that the examination process is conducted fairly and efficiently.

Expert Evidence

Expert evidence is frequently used in arbitration, particularly in cases involving technical or specialized issues. Experts may be appointed by the parties or, in some instances, by the arbitral tribunal itself.

Expert Reports and Testimony: Experts provide written reports outlining their findings and opinions, which are submitted as evidence. These experts may also be called to testify and be cross-examined during the hearings, providing an opportunity for the parties to challenge their conclusions.

Case Law and Judicial Perspectives

The Indian judiciary has consistently upheld the principles of flexibility and party autonomy in arbitration, emphasizing the limited role of courts in interfering with arbitral procedures, including the collection of evidence.

Fali Nariman's Perspective: In the context of arbitration, renowned legal scholar Fali Nariman highlights the importance of allowing arbitral tribunals the discretion to manage the evidence-gathering process, thereby ensuring efficiency and fairness. He advocates for minimal judicial interference to uphold the integrity and autonomy of the arbitration process.

Reliance on IBA Rules: Indian arbitration practices often draw on the International Bar Association (IBA) Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration, which provide detailed guidelines on document production, witness testimony, and expert evidence. The IBA Rules, though not binding, are widely respected and provide a useful framework for arbitral tribunals and parties.

Comparative Perspectives

In international arbitration, the approach to evidence varies across jurisdictions, reflecting different legal traditions and practices. Common law jurisdictions tend to emphasize oral evidence and cross-examination, while civil law jurisdictions may place greater reliance on written submissions and documentary evidence. The flexibility of arbitration allows parties to tailor the evidence-gathering process to suit their specific needs and preferences, drawing on best practices from both legal traditions.


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